Religion and spirituality are terms that describe a variety of beliefs systems. Both have positive and negative characteristics. Some people reject religion while others embrace spirituality.
Religion can be defined as a set of moral, religious, and ethical beliefs. It includes texts, moral rules, practices, and worldviews. Religious institutions may have specific criteria for membership and conduct.
Spirituality is a term used to describe a personal or private way of relating to the sacred. It can involve participation in religious institutions, or personal meditation or prayer. The religious experience can also have a social context. A person’s spirituality is influenced by his or her cultural context.
A person’s religious experience can have a positive or negative impact on his or her wellbeing. Psychological literature suggests that benefits to health and well-being flow from a coherent belief system and a sense of purpose. Likewise, a rigid or rigidly held religious belief can create an exclusive worldview, excluding minorities.
Many people have negative attitudes toward religion. Large-scale acts of terrorism like bombings and racist rallies give religion a bad name. However, religion can still be a source of social support. Individualism can weaken the social function of religion.
Across the world, religion and spirituality are distinct, yet often intertwined. For instance, a person might believe in a supernatural phenomenon, such as reincarnation. While this might be a spiritual belief, it is based on a religion.
Those who do not attend a church or other religious institution are said to be “spiritual but not religious.” The category of spirituality has become popular in the United States.